A number of surgical procedures can be performed to deal with patellofemoral pain and instability once non-surgical treatments have failed. The precise procedure(s) performed are determined after a careful clinical assessment of the cause of the problem, with appropriate X-rays and scans where necessary.
Possible procedures include:
- closed lateral release
- medial plication
- medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction
- distal realignment procedures, such as tibial tuberosity transfer